The Budding Geographers of Y7

Defining Geography
  • To provide accurate, orderly, and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the earth surface." - Richard Hartshorne, 1959
  • "To understand the earth as the world of man" - J.O.M. Broek, 1965
  • "Geography is the study of earth as the home of people" - Yi-Fu Tuan, 1991

Earth Clock


Topic 1. Important Terms and Concepts in Population Geography

DEMOGRAPHY- is the study of population
Population density- Population per unit of land area; that is the number of people per square mile or people per square kilometer.
Birth rate (or Crude birth rate)- the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Death rate (or Crude death rate)- the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population of a given year.

Rate of natural change - the difference between birthrate and death rate.

Sex ratio- the number of males per 100 females in a population.

Life expectancy- average number of years that a person can be expected to live, usually from birth if other demographic factors remain unchanged.

Migration- is the movement of people involving a change of residence. It can be internal displacement or international and voluntary or forced. It is usually for an extended period (more than a year) and does not include temporary circulation such as commuting or tourism.

Countries with highest birth rate

Home work:

Where to look for demographic data?
Visit the following web links and get acquainted

Class Work:
Work Sheet on population growth and natural change

Topic 2: Internal Structure of the Earth


Layers of the Earth
Thickness and temperature
(i) Continental crust, which carries land, made up of mostly low density granite
(ii) Oceanic crust, which carries water, made up of mostly basalt
  • Outermost layer of the earth
  • Relatively thin
  • Made up of low density light weight material
  • Split into several plates floating on the semi-molten upper Mantle.
0 to70 km thick, continental crust is thicker and lighter than oceanic crust.
Mohorovicic Discontinuity or Moho
The boundary between crust and mantle
  • Consist of the Earth´s crust
  • Hard, rigid, fragile surface layer of the planet.

(i) Upper mantle or Asthenosphere

(ii) Lower mantle
Comprises 84% of the Earth's volume and 67% of its mass,
Hot material upwells, while cooler and heavier material sinks downward.

Hot and partially molten layer of the Earth which underlies the lithosphere.

Most magma that erupt at the surface as lava are derived originally by melting of the mantle

is almost exclusively solid
It has a thickness of approximately 2,900 km.

temperatures range between 500 to 900 °C
D layer and Gutenberg discontinuity
Core-mantle boundary


(i) Outer core

(ii) Inner Core
Inner most layer of the Earth
consist of predominantly Iron, Nickel and Sulfur

Outer core is a layer of slow-moving liquid metal. It generates electrical currents as it flows and these create Earth’s magnetic field.

Inner core is a solid mass of hot metal reaching over 5000 °C.
Up to 5150 km

Temperatures of up to 5,500°C.
Up to 6378 km from the surface

Work Sheet: Internal structure of the Earth and demographic terms

Topic 3. Sectors of Economy

Sectors of Economy.jpg

Primary Sector
The primary sector includes the production of raw material and basic foods that is agriculture. It includes obtaining and refining raw materials such as wood, coal, gold. Workers in this sector include farmers, loggers, miners. All types of natural resources industries such as fishing, farming, forestry and mining are part of this group.
Secondary Sector
Secondary sector involves transforming raw materials into semi-finished goods or finished Goods. Manufacturing, processing, and construction lie within the secondary sector. Activities associated with the secondary sector include metal working and smelting, automobile production, textile production, chemical and engineering industries, aerospace manufacturing, energy utilities, breweries and bottlers, construction, and shipbuilding.
Tertiary Sector
Tertiary sector is the service industry. This sector provides services to the general population and to businesses. Activities associated with this sector include retail and wholesale sales, transportation and distribution, entertainment (movies, television, radio, music, theater, etc), restaurants, clerical services, media, tourism, insurance, banking, healthcare, and law. In developed countries, major proportions of workers are devoted to the tertiary sector. In the U.S.A more than 80% of the labor force is tertiary workers.
Quaternary Sector
This sector is mainly part of tertiary sector and signifies the intellectual organization in a society such as research, information technology (IT), higher education.
Quinary Sector
Quinary sector is also related to tertiary and quaternary sector, but includes only the senior management levels. Top management in media, arts, culture, higher education, science and technology, and government (diplomats and ministers) are included in the quinary sector.

Work Sheet: Do self research and find out some interesting facts about Germany
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Topic 4. Ecosystems


Concept of Ecosystem

  • An ecosystem is made up of plants and animals, and their non-living environment (air, water, soil, climate and so on)
  • These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together.
  • In an ecosystem all biotic materials (plants and animal) along with abiotic or non living components (air, water, soil etc) interact as a system by establishing complex interrelationships among them over a particular unit of space.
  • In an ecosystem, each organism has its role to play.
  • The fundamental source of energy in almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun
  • Climate is the key factor that makes these ecosystems so different from each other.
  • Ecosystems are fragile. So we should be more careful otherwise we will destroy them.
  • The Earth can be divided into large ecosystems

Scales of Ecosystems

Micro: A small scale ecosystem such as a pond, small park, tree trunk etc.
Meso: A medium scale ecosystem such as a forest or a large lake.
Macro (Biome): A very large ecosystem or collection of ecosystems with almost similar characteristics.

Interrelationships in an Ecosystem


Food Chain
  • A food chain is the sequence of who eats whom in an ecosystem to obtain nutrition
  • It depicts simple feeding relationship in an ecosystem (simplified linear sequence of consumer level)
  • A food chain starts with the primary energy source, usually the sun. The next link in the chain is an organism that makes its own food from the primary energy source for example photosynthetic plants. These are called autotrophs or primary producers. Next come organisms called herbivores or primary consumers that eat the plants for example rabbit that eats grass. The next link in the chain is animals that eat herbivores, called secondary consumers, for example,a snake that eat rabbits. In turn, these animals are eaten by larger predators. When any organism dies, it is eventually eaten by detrivores (like vultures, worms and crabs) and broken down by decomposers (mostly bacteria and fungi)

Food Web
In reality, various food chains are interrelated and take the form of complex web of feeding relations.

Tropical Rainforest Biome


  • The tropical rainforest is one of the largest terrestrial Ecosystems on the earth.
  • It is the most productive and diverse ecosystem on land. It contains over 50% of world’s species in just 6% of land. It accounts for 80% of world’s insect.
  • Rainforest once covered almost 15% of the earth’s land, now has declined to only 6% due to wide spread clearance and deforestation.

How important it is to preserve rain forest?

  • Over 200 million people live in the rain forest. The annual loss of rainforest is about 40 million acres, the size of England. This means rainforest is disappearing at an average rate of one acre per second (the size of a football field)
  • Tropical Rainforests are absorbers of Carbon Dioxide- act as Global sink of co2. It is known as the lungs of the planet.
  • Tropical rainforest is the habitat of many exotic and endangered animal like Golden Lion Tamarin monkey, Aye-Aye (Madagascar, endemic), Manatee, Jaguar, Poison Dart Frog etc.An area of rainforest, the size of a football field may have more than 200 different species of trees, signifies large bio-biodiversity. So rainforest destruction means extinction of specie.
  • Rainforests are a vital source of medicines.Most of these medicines were first discovered and used by indigenous people. For example, Quinine is extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree and is used to cure malaria.
  • Rainforests are also the Source of Fuel wood(charcoal) for many indigenous people and provides Furniture industries- saw logs, pulp wood, plywood, veneer (thin slice of wood) and for other forest based industries- gums, resins, beekeeping.
  • With one of the most diverse and delicate ecosystems in the world, the rain forest is a favorite destination for the tourist

Odum, E. P, Barrett, G.W , R, Brewer (2004). Fundamentals of Ecology. Brooks Cole Pub Co. ISBN-13: 978-0534420666
Bailey, Robert G. (2009). Ecosystem Geography (Second ed.). New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-89515-4.
Molles, Manuel C. (1999). Ecology: Concepts and Applications. Boston: WCB/McGraw-HIll. ISBN 0-07-042716-X.
Smith, Thomas M. Robert Leo Smith (2012). Elements of Ecology (Eighth ed.). Boston: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978-0-321-73607-9